Por lei, cultura indígena é tema de aula

indio301010101Escolas recorrem à criatividade para ensinar origem do povo brasileiro e se surpreendem com interesse demonstrado pelos alunos. Sabor típico. Crianças da Escola Suíço-Brasileira fazem lanche comunitário com alimentos ligados à cultura indígena       Cocares, chocalhos, sementes e cantos indígenas estão se misturando aos livros e cadernos dos alunos nas aulas. Para cumprir a lei que exige o estudo da história e cultura afro-brasileira e indígena, que passou a vigorar em 2008, as escolas públicas e particulares abusam da criatividade para entreter os estudantes.

Ao abordar assuntos como o povoamento da América e a colonização brasileira, os professores tentam desfazer estereótipos e mostrar as origens do povo brasileiro. “O objetivo é desmistificar a visão de que os indígenas são apenas aqueles grupos que vivem nas matas, afastados da civilização, como as populações que os conquistadores portugueses encontraram no século XVI”, afirma o professor de História do Colégio Pentágono, Américo dos Santos.

Com a proposta de atrair a atenção dos alunos para a importância histórica dos índios e dos negros, as aulas exploram múltiplos recursos. Na Escola Suíço-Brasileira, na zona sul de São Paulo, os alunos do 1.º ano do fundamental vivenciam o dia a dia dos índios em cabanas de pano e um banquete com alimentos típicos. “Eles aprendem até as formas de comer e de sentar dos indígenas”, afirma a professora Vera Povoa.

Para ambientar os alunos, algumas escolas utilizam desde vídeos – o que inclui até mesmo uma espécie de reality show do cotidiano de uma aldeia, filmado pelos próprios índios – até excursões para museus e comunidades indígenas, onde as crianças aprendem a usar arco e flecha.

“A visita aos museus encanta as crianças, principalmente as informações obtidas sobre os hábitos e os costumes”, conta a professora Patrícia Sanches, da Escola Carlitos, na zona oeste paulistana. “Eles acabam gostando tanto do estudo desses temas que realizam pesquisas individuais, mesmo sem a solicitação do professor.”

Referências. O interesse despertado nas crianças é notável, principalmente quando elas percebem a influência que as raízes indígenas e afro-americanas têm em suas vidas. “Os alunos percebem que nos nossos hábitos há muitas referências culturais, como dormir em rede, comer farinha de mandioca e assar peixe na brasa, por exemplo”, afirma a coordenadora pedagógica da Escola Cidade Jardim Play Pen, Gabriela Argolo. “Essa identificação é necessária para que eles percebam as diferentes raízes que compõem nosso povo: indígena, africana e dos diferentes imigrantes que aqui chegaram.”

A necessidade de uma lei que obrigue o ensino desses conteúdos divide os educadores. “Sou a favor da lei porque o ser humano tem tendência a esquecer de sua própria história”, opina a professora Cristina Matias, do Colégio Hugo Sarmento.

Já Gabriel Passetti, professor de história do Colégio Equipe, acha que o ensino desses temas não deveriam depender de uma obrigação legal. “Quando um conteúdo é oferecido somente porque é obrigatório se torna um fardo para o professor, que pode ensiná-lo de forma desinteressante e acrítica”, afirma.

Debate. Os educadores destacam que a discussão desses temas não deve ser restrita a datas especiais. “Não devemos tratar esses assuntos como temas momentâneos, como o dia do índio. O debate deve perpassar todo o currículo”, afirma Maria da Betania Galas, coordenadora de artes e projetos da Escola Viva.

As escolas acreditam que a abordagem das temáticas indígenas e afro-americanas nas aulas de história, língua portuguesa e artes ajudam a formar cidadãos, eliminando preconceitos.

“A incorporação dos temas e discussões sobre as questões étnico-raciais como objeto de conhecimento favorece um novo olhar para as disciplinas escolares, ajudando a compreender melhor o conjunto complexo de relações sociais”, explica Suzete Borelli, da Diretoria de Orientação Técnica de Ensino Fundamental e Médio da cidade de São Paulo.

Valéria de Souza, da Coordenadoria de Estudos e Normas Pedagógicas da Secretaria de Estado da Educação de São Paulo, concorda. “Os alunos devem apreender as formas respeitosas de convivência com membros de etnias diferentes e superar preconceitos impostos pela padronização de valores culturais, éticos e estéticos”, afirma.

NA ESCOLA

Temas abordados
Formação da população brasileira; estudo da história da África e dos africanos; a luta dos negros e dos povos indígenas no Brasil; a cultura e contribuições negra e indígena nas áreas social, econômica e política.

Autores
Darcy Ribeiro, Daniel Munduruku, John Manuel Monteiro, Eduardo Natalino dos Santos, Gabriela Pellegrino Soares e Manuela Carneiro da Cunha, entre outros.

Passeios
Museus (como o Museu do Índio, em Embu), visitas a aldeias e cidades históricas.

Materiais
Livros, poesias, mapas, gráficos, jornais, revistas, músicas, filmes, documentários, imagens e o site da Funai.

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