Aculturação e Sociologia

AculturaçãoO conceito de aculturação foi durante muito tempo utilizado para se avaliar o processo de contato entre duas diferentes culturas. Entretanto, a utilização desse tipo de categoria vem sendo cada vez mais criticada e combatida por antropólogos e outros especialistas das ciências humanas. Em geral, a crítica realizada a esse conceito combate a idéia de que uma cultura desaparece no momento em que entra em contato com os valores de outras culturas.

 

No entanto, essa premissa se mostra completamente equivocada por compreender que a cultura consiste em um conjunto de valores, práticas e signos imutáveis no interior de uma sociedade. Estudos de natureza histórica e antropológica, principalmente a partir da segunda metade do século XX, demonstraram que as sociedades humanas estão constantemente reorganizando suas formas de compreender e lidar com o mundo. Dessa forma, a cultura não pode ser vista de uma forma estática.

 

Um dos mais claros exemplos desse processo pode ser visto com relação às comunidades indígenas brasileiras. No começo do século XX, as autoridades oficiais acreditavam que a ampliação do contato entre brancos e índios poderia, em questão de décadas, extinguir as comunidades indígenas. Contudo, o crescimento das comunidades indígenas – a partir da década de 1950 – negou o prognóstico do início daquele século.

 

Dessa forma, devemos compreender que a cultura é um processo dinâmico e aberto em que hábitos e valores são sistematicamente ressignificados. Por isso, a idéia de aculturação não pode ser vista como o fim de uma cultura, pois não há como pensar que um mesmo grupo social irá preservar os mesmos costumes durante décadas, séculos ou milênios. A cultura de um povo, para manter-se viva, deve ser suficientemente livre para conduzir suas próprias escolhas, inovações e permanências.

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