Escultura

esculturaConsiderada a terceira das artes clássicas, a escultura é a técnica de representar objetos e seres através da reprodução de formas. Utiliza-se de materiais como gesso, pedra, madeira, resinas sintéticas, aço, ferro, mármore e das seguintes técnicas: cinzelação, fundição, moldagem ou a aglomeração de partículas. Sua origem baseia-se na imitação da natureza, com o intuito maior de representar o corpo humano.

A escolha do material envolve a técnica utilizada. Novas técnicas como dobra e solda de chapas metálicas, moldagens com resinas, plásticos, materiais tridimensionais tem sido empregadas.

A escultura na Pré-História foi associada à magia e à religião. No período paleolítico, o objetivo era moldar animais e figuras humanas, geralmente femininas.

A escultura, como é conhecida atualmente, surgiu no Oriente Médio, foi uma das últimas artes a serem desenvolvidas durante a Idade Média, talvez pelo apelo sensual.

A Grécia Clássica é o berço ocidental da arte de esculpir, desde os seus primeiros artefatos em mármore ou bronze a partir do século 10 a.C., até o apogeu da era de Péricles, com as esculturas da Acrópole de Atenas. Posteriormente, os romanos aderiram à cultura clássica e continuaram a produzir esculturas até o fim do império, difundindo o trabalho em mármore por todo o império.

Foi no Renascimento que a escultura se destacou, com a famosa estátua de Davi, de Michelangelo. Donatello e Verocchio foram outros mestres importantes do período. Entre os séculos XIX e XX, destacam-se os artistas Constantin Brancuse e August Rodin, dois mestres da escultura que influenciaram vários outros artistas

 

    Author: Redação

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